Friday, January 31, 2014

Cancer could actually be a fungus infection.

Cancer could actually be a fungus infection.

All the medicine that have anti-cancer properties also coincidentally have a common properties which is anti-fungal

1.Curcumin as a promising antifungal of clinical interest.

The antifungal activity of curcumin was evaluated against 23 fungi strains and its in vitro inhibitory effect on the adhesion of Candida species to human buccal epithelial cells (BEC) was also investigated.

The antifungal susceptibility was evaluated by broth microdilution assay following the CLSI (formerly the NCCLS) guidelines. The inhibitory effect of curcumin on the cell adhesion was performed with Candida species and BEC.

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates were the most susceptible to curcumin while the growth of Aspergillus isolates was not affected. Curcumin was much more efficient than fluconazole in inhibiting the adhesion of Candida species to BEC, particularly those strains isolated from the buccal mucosa of AIDS patients.

The lack of antifungal compounds with reduced side effects highlights the importance of studying natural products for this purpose. Curcumin was a more potent antifungal than fluconazole against P. brasiliensis, the causal agent of the neglected disease paracoccidioidomycosis. Curcumin dramatically inhibited the adhesion of Candida species isolated from AIDS patients to BEC, demonstrating that curcumin is a promising lead compound that warrants further investigation into its therapeutical use in immunocompromised patients.

2.Antifungal steroid glycoside from sea cucumber.

An antifungal steroid glycoside, holotoxin, has been isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus (Selenka). In vitro, it exhibits high activity against various fungi, including vegetable pathogens, but has scarcely any activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and mycobacteria in vitro.

3.Artemisinin, promising lead natural product for various drug developments.

Artemisinin and its synthetic derivatives are widely used for antimalarial agents in the world. Moreover, they are discovered to additionally use as anticancer, antiangiogenesis, antiviral, immunosuppressive, and antifungal agents. Recent research results supported that it is a very promising field in drug discovery. In this review, it will discuss the structural and biological features of artemisinin and its derivatives that have published since 2003 except antimalarial, and show that they are useful lead compounds for novel drug discovery.

4.Growth inhibition of a spectrum of bacterial and fungal pathogens by sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate product found in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables.

In addition to its documented antitumor effects, previous in vitro and in vivo infectivity experiments have shown that sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate compound found abundantly in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, inhibits the growth of the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori. No recent evidence exists, however, on the possible microbial activity of SFN against a broader range of microorganisms, including those that may develop resistance to conventional antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility patterns of SFN against a wide variety of bacterial and fungal pathogens. Sensitivity testing was done on 28 different microbial species using a modified Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion method and results were interpreted based on guidelines established by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. The broad-spectrum antibiotic, ceftriaxone (CTX), was used as a positive control for antimicrobial inhibition. It was found that 23 out of 28 different microbial species were inhibited by SFN with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 1-4 microg/mL. Five pathogens--Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 3 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates and Candida albicans--were considered resistant to SFN, having MICs >or= 16-32 microg/mL. These findings suggest that, with the dual action of SFN against a select group of microorganisms and its ability to inhibit tumor growth, SFN (or the consumption of SFN-containing vegetables) might be especially helpful in preventing certain types of infections in both cancer and non-cancer patients.

5.Antifungal activity of ajoene derived from garlic.

The antifungal activity of six fractions derived from garlic was investigated in an in vitro system. Ajoene had the strongest activity in these fractions. The growth of both Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans was inhibited by ajoene at less than 20 micrograms/ml.

6.Multiple effects of green tea catechin on the antifungal activity of antimycotics against Candida albicans.

The susceptibility of Candida albicans to catechin under varying pH conditions and the synergism of the combination of catechin and antimycotics were evaluated.Method: Antifungal activity was determined by broth dilution and calculation of cfu.

The antifungal activity of catechin was pH dependent. The concentration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) causing 90% growth inhibition of tested strains of C. albicans was 2000 mg/L at pH 6.0, 500-1000 mg/L at pH 6.5 and 15.6-250 mg/L at pH 7.0. Among catechins, pyrogallol catechin showed stronger antifungal activity against C. albicans than catechol catechin. The addition of 6.25-25 or 3.12-12.5 mg/L EGCg to amphotericin B 0.125 or 0.25 mg/L (below MIC) at pH 7.0 resulted in enhancement, respectively, of the antifungal effect of amphotericin B against amphotericin B-susceptible or -resistant C. albicans. Combined treatment with 3.12-12.5 mg/L EGCg plus amphotericin B 0.5 mg/L (below MIC) markedly decreased the growth of amphotericin B-resistant C. albicans. When fluconazole-susceptible C. albicans was treated with 25-50 mg/L EGCg and fluconazole 0.125-0.25 mg/L (below MIC), its growth was inhibited by 93.0%-99.4% compared with its growth in the presence of fluconazole alone. The combined use of 12.5 mg/L EGCg and fluconazole 10-50 mg/L (below MIC) inhibited the growth of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans by 98.5%-99.7%.

These results indicate that EGCg enhances the antifungal effect of amphotericin B or fluconazole against antimycotic-susceptible and -resistant C. albicans. Combined treatment with catechin allows the use of lower doses of antimycotics and induces multiple antifungal effects. It is hoped that this may help to avoid the side effects of antimycotics.

7.An antifungal protein from ginger rhizomes.

There are very few reports on antifungal proteins from rhizomes and there is none from the family of Zingiberaceae. An antifungal protein with a novel N-terminal sequence was isolated from ginger rhizomes utilizing a protocol that involved ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, and fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The protein was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel. It exhibited an apparent molecular mass of 32kDa and exerted antifungal activity toward various fungi including Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, and Physalospora piricola.

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